0 preface

Currently, copper Green Mountain has entered deep mining, not only face deep "three high a disturbance," the harsh environment, and have a greater change compared to the deep ore body and the upper middle, reduced the proportion of ore Heavy much mine The variation of the body inclination angle is large, the branching compound phenomenon is common, and the stability of the ore rock is deteriorated. At present, the mine mainly uses the upward stratified filling method. The mining method adopts pneumatic leg rock drilling and manual charging blasting, which has low production efficiency, high labor intensity, and the personnel are exposed to the empty field, and the safety is poor.
       In order to ensure the safe and efficient recovery of deep resources and maintain the continuity of mine production, Tonglushan Mine began to test the mechanized upper-middle-hole high-layer stratification filling method on the basis of the general upward stratified filling method in 2014. The mining method of the rock drilling, charging blasting, mining and other processes use mechanized supporting equipment, 12m high section using two high-level mining, greatly improving the mining production efficiency and operational safety.
       1Deep ore body mining technical conditions
       According to the current mining situation of Tonglushan Mine, the deep ore body mining is mainly located between the 6#~9# exploration lines [1], the total length of the ore body is about 1000m, and the main ore body is the No. III and IV ore bodies, accounting for the total ore. 80%. Wherein, Ⅲ ore body located between survey lines 0 to 13, about 350 ~ 400m, angle 50 ° ~ 80 °, typically having a thickness of 5 ~ 25m, the maximum thickness of 120m; Ⅳ iron ore, copper ore bodies, further There are a small amount of single copper ore and iron ore. The ore body is elongated and has a layered shape on the section. The hydrogeology of the deposit belongs to the karst cave, the top and bottom plates directly enter the water, and the hydrogeological conditions are moderate to complex. The surrounding rock of the ore body plate is skarn and marble in the 15th line, marble or dolomitic marble in the 19th to 29th, and granodiorite porphyry in the bottom, all of which are solid rocks, and the surrounding rock of the No. IV ore body. The stability is stronger than the No. III ore body.
       2 mining methods
       2.1 stope structure parameters
       When the thickness of the ore body is large, the stope is arranged vertically, the stage height is 60m, the length of the stope is the thickness of the ore body, the width is 8~12m, the height of the bottom column is 12m, the height of the section is 12~13m, and each section is divided into 2 Layered mining, the first layer mining height is 3.0-5.0m, the second layer mining height is 5.0-6.0m, the mining is carried out from bottom to top, and the mining room and the column are two-step mining.
       2.2 mining cutting
       The slopes are arranged in the lower part of the ore body. The excavators and equipment are fed into the section roadway by the ramp road through the section roadway. The roadway enters the stopway from the section roadway, and each pit is arranged with a patio. For ventilation and gutter free surface, as shown in Figure 1. When the first layer is recovered, a cutting lane is constructed and widened to the width of the stope to form a compensation space of 3.0 m and a working space for rock drilling equipment. Sections of alluvial roadways such as sectioned roadways and corners are 3.2m×3.0m, sectioned communication roads, layered communication roads, and other roadway sections are 3.0m×3.0m, and pull-down lanes are 3.0m×3.4m. Return air patio 2m × 2m.

       2.3 mining process
       (1) Rock drilling. The Boomer K41X drilling rig is used to drill the upper parallel blasthole with a hole diameter of 51 mm. The first layer has a hole depth of 3.0 to 5.0 m and the second layer has a hole depth of 5.0 to 6.0 m. Cloth hole, the hole network in the gutter area is generally 1.0m×1.2m, the hole distance in the side collapse area is 1.3m~1.5m, and the row spacing is 1.4~1.6m, in order to ensure that the two gangs are not affected by the shock wave. The damage, the side hole of the mining site is 0~0.4m from the boundary, the edge of the pit is 0.6~0.8m from the filling body, the hole spacing is 0.5m, and the water platform is every 3~5m. The car hits an edge with a 45° elevation to help control the hole.

(2) Charge blasting. A layered stop has a charge after blasting. The ammonium explosive was filled with the charging trolley, and the detonating cord was placed in the bottom of the hole together with the detonating medicine bag. The double-shot detonator was used to detonate, the resistance line was 1 m, and the hole was filled with the mortar 0.5 m. Due to the high altitude of the stope, especially the highest empty field of the second layer is up to 9m, for the protection side, the side hole adopts the uncoupled charge or the bamboo tube interval charge. The high-precision millisecond detonator is used as the explosive charge from 1 to 30 stages, and the side hole is delayed for a period of detonation. The whole blasting network is detonated by the detonating cord and the millisecond detonator non-electrical double-starting network.
       (3) Topping stone treatment. After a stratified stope blasting, sufficient time must be ventilated to enter the stope for the treatment of turquoise. The top plate and the side help rock are treated manually from the exit point on the explosion pile. After the second layer blasting, the contact section of the previous section enters the stope to process the loose rock, and if necessary, the anchor net support is carried out. It is necessary to carry out the rubble treatment before each operation, paying particular attention to the treatment of the side shovel after the ore is shoveled out.
       (4) Mining. Make sure that the roof and side are safe before you can carry out the mining operation. The EST-31/2 electric scraper is used to shovel the ore and transport it to the ore chute for unloading.
       (5) Filling of the stope. After the mining site is layered and mined, the filling operation is carried out. The mining site is filled with fine sand cement or tailings cement, and the inter-column mining site is filled with non-cemented or tailings cement. The filling height is the layered blasting height, and the height of about 3.0 m is reserved as the compensation space and equipment working space for the lower layer blasting. After the filling body reaches the strength, the next layer of mining operations can be carried out.
       3 mining technology key technologies
       3.1 high steep side control
       Side control is the most critical operation of this mining process. In order to improve production efficiency, the 12m high section adopts two-layer mining, the height of the first layer after the mining is 7m, and the height of the second layer after the mining is 9m. If the edge control is not good, it is easy to cause the edge. Helping to fall, affecting the mining, filling and rock drilling operations in the next layer, and even large-scale collapse. Therefore, measures must be taken to ensure that the blast is tidy. In view of this situation, the side hole of the stope is blasted by smooth blasting, and the hole hole spacing is designed to be 0.5m. At the same time, the bamboo tube is used for interval charging. For the convenience of construction, the uncoupled charge of the PVC pipe placed in the hole can also be adopted. The PVC pipe is placed on the side of the side, and at the same time, the side hole lags behind the middle hole to detonate, ensuring that the free side of the side hole faces the middle of the stop, and reduces the impact damage of the explosive blasting to the side rock. After field tests, the side control effect is very good, and there has never been a collapse.
       3.2 High-stratified segmentation blasting
       After the second layer blasting, the personnel enter the mine from the contact line of the previous section to perform the roof processing operation, so the blasting is very critical. First of all, it is necessary to ensure that the construction of the contact road reaches a certain distance beyond the boundary of the stope, and the slope of the contact road and the angle of the curve are designed to facilitate the access of the equipment. The depth of the second layer of blasthole construction must be sufficient so that the height of the roof after blasting is higher than that of the contact floor, ensuring that the second layer of blasting can blow through the upper contact. Since the upper part is well constructed in advance, some of the blastholes in the stope will penetrate the contact road, which will bring some difficulty to the blasting. The part of the blasthole must be blocked in the upper contact road to ensure that the charge is in place and that the contact path is not Water, so as not to cause difficulties in the construction of explosive blasting, resulting in blasting accidents.
       3.3 High-altitude roof safety treatment

After the stratified stope blasting, the roof slab is treated on the heap. Due to the large blasting area and the uneven height of the blasting pile, especially in the side blasting area, the ore is often thrown into the trough area, resulting in the quarrying of the quarry. Short, empty height is too high, which brings certain difficulties to the topping treatment. In order to overcome this problem, it is necessary to solve the problem of uneven height of the pile by changing the detonation sequence. Using the detonation sequence of Figure 2, the middle blasthole uses two rows of the same section of blasting, and the inter-row differential is the shortest differential interval. After the three-stage detonation, the side hole blasts to the middle to reduce the throwing of the ore. After the second layer blasting, enter the stope from the contact section of the previous section, and the blasthole at the interface between the stope and the junction will be detonated first, and the blasthole on the other side will be detonated to ensure the height of the explosion at the interface. enough. Due to the uneven control of the depth of the blasthole construction, the top plate is prone to unevenness after blasting. If necessary, a row of horizontal holes can be constructed by hand-held rock drill , and the top plate can be flattened by smooth blasting to reduce the difficulty of roof slab treatment and increase the stability of the roof. .

       4 Conclusion
       The deep ore body conditions of the Tonglushan Mine are complex, and the mechanized upper-deep hole and high-layer stratified filling method is adopted. The mining process is used to drill up to the middle and deep hole, and the techniques of rock drilling, charge blasting and mining are mechanized. Auxiliary equipment, 12m high segmentation with 2 high-level mining.
       After field test, the mining method has high mining efficiency, large comprehensive production capacity of the stope, small comprehensive labor intensity, and safe operation of the stope. It has been widely promoted and applied in the Tonglushan Mine.
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Author of the article: to Chung, Daihong Hui, Zhou Keli, Xiongguo Xiong; Daye Nonferrous Metals Group Holdings Co., Ltd., Hubei Huangshi 435500;
Shi Xiuzhi, Qiu Xianyang ( School of Resources and Safety Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, China;
Article source: Mining Technology: 2015, (15) 6;

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